Data Independence

The ability of modifying a schema definition in one level without affecting a schema definition in a Higher Level is called Data Independence.

Logical Data Independence

  • The ability to modify the conceptual scheme without causing application programs to be re-written.
  • Immunity of external schemas to change in conceptual schema
  • Usually done when logical structure of database is altered

Physical Data Independence

  • The ability to modify the internal schema without having to change the conceptual or external schemas.
  • Modifications at this level are usually to improve performance.

Schema of a database system is its structure described in a formal language supported by the database management system (DBMS) 

  • Refers to the organization of data to create a blueprint of how a database will be constructed (divided into database tables).
  • The formal definition of database schema is a set of formulas (sentences) called integrity constraints imposed on a database.

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